When we look at the literature on virtual organizations, we see that attention is primarily focused on virtual organization as a network organization, include changes in the nature of organizational boundaries. Network technology facilitate the processes of in- and exclusion of people and resources. Therefore, typologies virtual organization forms are often focused on the description of the specific pattern of the communication network. The question can be posed if the network metaphor is prominent enough to describe a virtual organization, the virtual organizations resemble too much idea of network planning. One reason reflects the idea of electronic networks and network organizations are essentially the same; or a virtual organization mirrors the electronic network which is seen as the basis for the development of a virtual organization. Other typologies are based on a combination of success reached factor. In all these typologies a deterministic relationship is suggested between development, environment, performance ,. … Est. virtual organization and some obstacles and how to solve it. However, doubt whether this is a promising perspective. Virtual Corporation Similar to the Virtual Business, Virtual Corporation can operate without physical identity (on-line business, such as Amazon.com).
2. The term virtual organization
Looking at the literature on virtual organizations, one stumbles on a variety of definitions; a variety that does not induce systematic research in this new organizational phenomenon. In the literature, are virtual entities described by a point on the following characteristics:
– The actual layout of the network setup. In this approach the emphasis lies on location independent and separate temporary cooperation which is based on the concept of cohesion. Information and communication technology (ICT) supports cooperation between these organizations by facilitating the exchange, dissemination and sharing of information, knowledge, know how and other scarce and valuable resource.
– The virtual organization which fact and fiction. Virtuality points on the concept of “something seems to be when in fact it is not.” The virtual organization points out situations where people or facilities that are not part of an organization affiliated with it as it was. In this approach the emphasis lies in the contrast between people and resources in some cases, are clearly part of the organization, but in other cases they are not.
– The virtual organization as an organization in cyberspace. Cyberspace represents a particular real and imaged space where people meet in electronically mediated and simulated space. The focus lies on the establishment of ‘information space’, which is created through the connection of computers and computer networks. The creation of this space facilitates the sharing of information and knowledge, as well as electronic communication. This relationship results in the creation of spaces flow, is compressed in time -Describes virtual organizations that space flows, which are subject setup time lease social practices that work through flows (of information, resources, images, sounds, symbols and communication) between agencies and individuals.
– The virtual organization as the organization of memory. Central is the idea of the dynamic allocation of data processing capacity within a network connected computers and computer networks. Time-sharing, made possible by the connection of computers and networks, makes syndication and the use of information and knowledge within the service. Connecting data processing capability enables organizations to develop a common memory, across organizational boundaries.
3.new policy (challenges) of Virtual Organizations company
Undoubtedly, the main advantage of a virtual organization is that it can be combined very qualified people without restrictions location. Other reasons an organization would want to consider a virtual rather than traditional is to utilize the skills of organization, providing customers with “best and brightest” Balance work / home relationship, Vista setup overhead costs
real teams and real institutions obviously facing many of the same opportunities and challenges. However, the actual structure is a higher risk of failure, with higher risk as well. The high internal demand of virtual team result in a higher degree of performance. A virtual organization, however, will be somewhat more diluted in a particularly interactive, because there will be many teams working on many projects, and requires even more work to do all the team feels more connected.
It requires a new management approach and extraordinary awareness of the issues and challenges that could cause its demise. In a recent focus group of representatives of twenty-one members of the virtual organization, but located in many places the site, the following subjects were recorded, Communication, Leadership / management, knowledge transfer, Processes, Infrastructure. As you might guess, good relations must evolve to become excellent communicators and core competency. For this particular company, it is actually a Communication Manager who has developed numerous communication vehicles, including: the internal network with the ability to share files, face-to-face group, team, and leader-ship meetings. In addition to all of the extra programs and vehicles for the agency, real workers to “go the extra mile” to keep others informed. It is a cultural shift for many and important personal and professional growth in a real organization. The organization and employees need to become active and constant communication. This leads to the second challenge this focus group – Infrastructure. Issues within the infrastructure included: Lack of proper backup tools, wasted administrative time (not on-site IT support), knowledge (loss of “water cooler” effect), and a need for connection.
As you can see there is an overlap of the two areas, especially waste administrative time and corporate connectivity. Bottom line is the virtual organization needs to invest in technology and training. It will provide employees with the right tools and support to promote success. At this particular company Virtual Help Desk was available to all members of this focus group. So turn my attention to what I believe is the most critical success factor of a virtual organization – the active and constant communication. It will be interesting to see the evolution of the virtual organization can be a wonderful alternative to traditional organization with many advantages to their employees provided management recognizes the challenges
4.Virtual Organization Success Factor cover
4.1 Structure, environment and transport
the structure affect the performance of institutional and structural dimensions are appropriate performance virtual organizations. It has long been argued that more dynamic external environment organization, the unpredictability of customer requirements, resources supply and similar factors, successful organizations would sink to less mechanistic and more flexible or organic structures. Successful companies appear to adopt structures that favor less form mount, more decentralization, and coordination of mature units, so try for increased organist. But such structural properties crucial in organizational performance. It has been shown turbulent external environment to affect the structure of the strategy chosen by companies to manage their market dynamics. Subject to mitigate strategic choice, extant literature has suggested that successful, high-performance organizations (large and small) in dynamic or turbulent environments tend to have certain characteristics structure. These properties are measured by the size of the design of such centralization, form attachment and complex. It has also been shown the relationship between structure and strategy to be meaningful in organizations facing dynamic environments. This relationship is also defined as “fit” between the structure and regulations and policies adopted by the agency. Simply stated, organizations that employ organic and flexible structure are likely to support changes in the strategic choice in a dynamic environment. Therefore, the adoption of strategic transformation, such as turnaround and reinvention, resulting in the rapid adaptation to environmental changes. For virtual organization, these findings are important guiding principles. Facing turbulent and highly dynamic environment, they must behave in a design that will “fit” the requirements of such an environment may impose on strategic behavior. Therefore, a design that provides flexibility and organist will be correlated with strategic capabilities and successfully and performance. There is a new project organizations concluded that new projects in emerging industries (such as virtual organizations) have a high correlation between their performance and their level of organist.
4.2 Virtual teams
The group is generally defined as a “small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach that they hold themselves mutually accountable.” The creation of groups, that is, the team, “is a normal part of the social behavior of people.” their importance for the organization lies in the fact that the team can make the organization “flexible, quality-conscious and competitive. According to” organizations recognize the impact on productivity of teams can use that knowledge to their advantage. “The virtual team (VT) is one of the forms, characteristic for virtual organizations. It can be often heard that virtual teams represent the basic cell of the virtual organization. There are various definitions of a virtual team. What most of these definitions have in common is fact that they focus on the members of the group are, in addition to being members of the team, separated (in space and / or time) and they communicate primarily by email. So, the real point is defined as “team (s ) of people who primarily interact electronically and who may meet face to face sometimes “or” self-managed knowledge team with distributed expertise, forms and dissolved to address specific organizational objectives “and” a group of people communication through interactive projects guided by common purpose “that” works across space, time and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technologies “.
it is precisely this definition, it is four essential issues basic model of VT “to keep something like a distributed network and something immediately as a virtual point-people associate with the purpose of time”. The point is important in any organization, will be key to virtual organizations and groups, as it is the “glue” that holds them together. In fact, it needs to establish a cooperative targets, individual projects and specific results. People make up the heart of the virtual team. One of the most importance factors is the high degree of autonomy or independence, the need for collaboration internally and is also recognized.
The relationship between the team members are important and must be able to be both face-to-face communication through information technology (ICT). Calendars are team-specific result deadlines, task-completion milestones and scheduled events, as well as holidays and other logistic significant dates that affect timing.
They are three elements to define virtual teams, geography Different places members: Virtual team members can be located in different places in the city or in different parts of the world. As distance increases and the more time zones are crossed, window synchronicity in working day narrows. And team members from different organizations are parts of the Agency: Team members may be from different institutions from different parts of the same organization. Finally, different length of time that members work together as a team: Depending on the role, the virtual team united around a project that lasts a few days, months or years. There are different variations of the virtual team.
Certain authors (see :. Snow et al, 1999, p.18) speak of, so called, “swarms” and some variants of the so-called “cross-organizational teams”. Distributed teams are (team) consists of people in the same organization who work in different locations, either interdependently, or separately. The basic variant of distributed teams are “task forces and project teams (as temporary items). Such teams are formed specifically to solve a particular problem or to perform a specific task. When the problem is resolved, or the task completed, the virtual team disappears (and team members return to normal duties). the basic variant of the so-called “cross-organizational teams” are “collocated cross organizational teams” are “distributed cross-organizational teams”. “collocated cross organizational teams consist of people from different organizations that work together in the same place. On the other hand, so-called “distributed cross-organizational teams” taking people from different agencies who work in different places.
4.3 Training advice
Training consultants interact with users to understand education requirements and define them in a way that can be used to build a personalized training programmed. And training / eLearning providers are also integrators, building bespoke training packages and co-ordination number of delivery to the end user content providers which are modular resources that can be used with training packages. The eLearning operator, the operator provides additional services, such as specialized portal, payment through a bank, etc., as well as private services that support strong security and contract management operational VO.
4.4 Properties of
Business difference lies in network capacity and virtuality. It is a great use of information and communication technologies that allow for portability, instant communication anywhere, anytime, and the ability to offer access to unlimited databases, information products and services. The distinction between business-to-business (B2B) and business to customer (B2C) also allows for the instant exchange of information, regardless of location and time of day, and the ability to process an unlimited amount of data in virtual storage. Clearly, passenger-reaching consequences for the organization and management of the marketing function, and such issues as “business model,” the role of brands, and the cost of entry.
Networks allow for immediate orders and information to what is termed: The “24 7 at home.” Net also facilitates cooperation between dealer and customer. Such developments require changes in the process of communication, management and product flow within the virtual organization-thus affecting the composition of its value chain. Another feature of virtual organizations is networking beyond the boundaries of the enterprise, thus forming inter-organizational workflows, along with the problems associated with technical standards, connectivity, and cultural differences. This phenomenon of “extended enterprise” creates a myriad of development challenges (Eliezer Geisler, 2001)
5. virtual organization successful creation steps
(1) The virtual organization is created by people with common idea that over a period of time associated with ICT. Even the first contacts, which are the result of a common idea, there is a need for the establishment of team identity. The name of the team symbolically represents its identity.
(2) After the establishment of the identity of the VO there follow the activities whose aim is to show the purpose of the existence of the team. The team projects need to be developed in due time, that is, it has to be understandable and it is particularly important, it must be approved by each member VO. Having that in mind, the task goes out must come out with precision and accuracy. For some, this means writing down the purpose of the formal order; for some it is a list of results; still others will embrace diagram or picture that captures the essence of what the team is about. Any instructions and pro-posed result of sitting inside in a wider perspective, whether direct or indirect. Written down, the vision serves as the preamble projects and goals.
(3) For many teams, real or not, during the period from the first rapid vision to set out a clear objective can take as long as all the rest of your team. Commissioning can be frustratingly long or bewilderingly short. Set Destination represents the accelerated pace and advance preparation for implementation.
(4) Limit serve as headings for groups of projects and results. Well- conceived goals mark the major ingredients of the staff, and the seeds around which the team take shape to actually do the work.
(5) The team is the result of a goal-oriented people. If the team comes with the accuracy of certain information in accordance with its objectives, it, at the same time, it is advised that they should be hidden. The table with the names of the team members represents a very practical model file of the virtual organization members (which can also be used to create so-called virtual directory structure). The start list of the team members is rather dynamic. The people who entered the team having the original idea does not have to be regular members. Important people have to be hired, and the team may identify the places that are not filled, and called for the necessary education, experience, or representation. Lists of names give some necessary information about the team (eg team size).
In order to contact people in the virtual world, one must know their addresses. Contact data addresses are crucial for team activities and they usually provide the following: office location, post code, telephone number (office, home, car, cellular), fax number, e-mail. People who are included in the VO to be carefully selected. They have the necessary skills Posse is such, so-called “virtual behavior”, which allows them to be the strong? “Team players” and also confirms that the necessary flexibility. The VO members have to posses skills of information management, running on line meetings and discussions and were able to cope with technological change. What is more important, the team members to have a whole set of modes of behavior which included includes a daily “logging”, formal and informal communication, the ability to deal with an overdose of data, etc.
(6) What is extremely important for the creation of a successful VO is the creation of the corresponding relationship between the members. These relationships are the following: who will contact each and what the goal of mutual contacts will be. That is why the teams, especially those newly established, are advised to see the mutual relations of its members by forming, so-called, “Connection Card” that are required for VO goal accomplishment. The idea that each member VO should participate in all team project is a very serious risk of the team. That is why the need to establish clearly which projects require team members to be with and how.
(7) a very important moment in the creation of VO is the choice of a suitable medium (roads or means of communication and information). When choosing an appropriate medium, different things have to take into account: functionality that members make, the media are already used, settings soldier is to certain media, prepared team members to accept the media who are not instant use, etc. There are three main media type: face to face, the actual same time (synchronous), real asynchronous.
6. VO problems and how to solve them
The fact is that the process of creation and activity of the virtual organization are not simple. They are accompanied by various problems, from those arising from cultural differences between team members, sometimes quite unreal expectations of what they and other team members can and can not do, the problems relating to the coordination of all virtual organization members. Still, the following can be major problems:
(1) The problem (UN) trust among team members, it is supposed to be essential problem of the virtual organization is not physical, but was so called, psychological distance, among the members. The all present danger in most real point is that members who are from different parts belonging to different cultures and received different levels of technological feel some kind of fear of the way that their information will be used, or whether other members of the team will give the same contributions to the implementation mutual projects, etc. trust that prevents physical from psychological barrier will be communicating with team members. It takes some time to develop “on-line” trust, if little time is usually spent on it.
(2) Problems of communication inside the virtual organization different problems concerning communication represent a serious problem in the operation of a virtual team. One such problem is the inability to see the whole project. The members of the virtual team know what they do as individuals, but they are not always sure whether and how the results of their work “fit” as a whole, the overall impression of the team project. As a result, it sometimes can increase problems like delay in the information needed to complete certain tasks, and accordingly delay to finish all the work. Specific communication within virtual organization could even create some situations where a member of the virtual organization is not under stand the received message completely. What is needed to solve or moderate, reduce, the aforementioned problem of the virtual organization is very satisfactory control.
(3) The development of trust. This question has to be of central importance to the team managers. It is a fact that the old-fashioned ways of management based on continuous monitoring and control are not suitable for the actual situation.
(4) encourage direct (face to face) contacts, if at all possible. It is often pointed out that the virtual organization managers to organize at least one inaugural for virtual organization members, so that they can meet each other in person and develop some personal contacts. Such meetings, if they are possible at all, do human interaction and communication among virtual organization members stronger.
(5) To introduce the team members in the process and timetable for the project implementation. The basic idea is to enable team members to realize their own position on the whole team. This can be done by showing the whole plan through electronic means.
(6) In order to find a model how to avoid “delays”. This model can include, for example, obliged reply to the question, or the need to provide necessary information for the stated period (24 hours or 48 hours, etc.), or the obligation to send reports to any son for the answer that question has the right Ad-dress and giving the answer will take some time.
(7) To take records of each team member. Although it can be difficult to remove files every day, it is advisable to communicate the absence of a team member with other members (away from home, town) of time ..
(8) A framework for trust, security and contract management of a new economy based on virtual organizations requires an environment where business can quickly come together to share resources and work together to achieve the project objectives. Negotiation, monitoring and enforcement of contracts and agreements that takes into account the reliability of account, accounting, security and other issues, such as the ITA, will be an important factor in this environment. Moreover, there is a need for services to replace the trust inherent in the operation within an integrated real organization (trust colleagues, even when it is not known personally, confidence measures and procedures, etc), and trust between clients and an established service providers with clear legal identity and brand / reputation.
We expect the virtual organization concept will be widely adopted. It offers great business opportunities to provide services, in particular the current operators of telecommunications networks, data centers and application infrastructure. The existence of actual, type environment to create opportunities for companies and other organizations to form the enterprise network and other communities on a commercial or public foundation. The literature on traditional and sustainable institutions has been instrumental to the structure dimensions play in the performance and success of such organizations. The same results can be implemented in real organizations. These organizations are better served when they adopt a structure that offers flexibility and organist-measured with a design dimension form mount, department tion, centralization and complexity.
Thus, virtual organizations can learn from the experience. The relationship between environment, strategy and structure is as relevant to real organizations to get traditional institutions. As we accumulate experience knowledge in this regard, we can now address the unique characteristics of virtual organization claimed that this knowledge is highly relevant to their development and their success. Every organization, when faced with the challenges of a very dynamic external environment, will be at the design dimension in a way to provide it with sufficient agility and organ city, so radical strategic choices can be implemented in a timely and successful manner. Virtual organization is one of the forms of items typical for virtual organizations.
The virtual organization represents a group of people that primarily interact electronically and who may meet face to face sometimes. It is the team that, thanks to the special features of, above areal, temporal and organizational boundaries, and with numerous advantages enables an organization to achieve better results. The virtual organization creation represents a rather complicated process involving several stages: Create identity, draft projects, Slate mile-stones, set goals, identify the members, establish contacts and select media. The actual organization of the activities included a number of problems can be successfully solved only with satisfactory operation of the virtual organization management.